[Dictionary]
A Simplest   English-Taiwanese-Hakka   Dictionary  ( for  English-->Hakka )
.  .  . to HMSS (Hakka Mod. Spelling System) explanation . . .         to EDUTECH Home-Page
Selection.   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .to Taiwanese--
>Hakka Dictionary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Explanation
      The prime interest of this dictionary is to show the difference between Taiwanese sound and Hakka sound.    A small English vocabulary is here used to bring up the corresponging Taiwanese words and Hakka words, given in the similar spelling system.    "TMSS (Taiwanese Modern Spelling System) with o" and "HMSS (Hakka Modern Spelling System) with g for gv" are similar in pronunciation.
       For people who are already familiar with TMSS, following explanation will be helpful.
       (1) In MLT articles, the letter "o" is used as phonetics [o] and [o].   In Taiwanese dictionaries and teaching materials, the phonetics [o] is specially given in the TMSS spelling of "o" if it is to be pronounced as [o].
       (2) In Hakka language, there is no pronounciation of [g].   Instead, the nasal sound [gv] is always used.   In our HMSS, the consonant letter "g" is taken as equivalent to "gv".
       (3) The vowel system an consonant system of Hakka is somewhat different from those in Taiwanese.
HMSS (Hakka Modern Spelling System)
 to Mandarin
  "TMSS vs. HMSS"
a. Hakka vowels:    a, e, i, o, o, u, (blank), m, ng, ai, am, an, ang, au, em, en, eu, ia, iam, iang, iau, ieh, ien, ieu, im, in, io, ioi, ion, iong, iu, iun, iung, oa, oai, oan, oang, oen, oi, on, ong, ui, un, ung
    Aniong these, (blank), em, en, eu, ieu, ieh, ioi, ion, iun, iung, oang, oen, oi, on, and ung are not exisitng in TMSS.    "ieh" in Hakka is pronunced as [i]+[eh].
b. Hakka stops  ak, ok, uk, iak, iok, iuk, at, et, it, iet, ot, oat, oet, ut, ap, ep, ip, up, iap
    Aniong these, uk, iuk, et, ot, oet, ep, and up  are not existing in TMSS.
c. Hakka consonants:    c, ch, f, gv, h, k, kh, l, m, n, p, ph, s, t, th, v, y, z, zh
    "y" is sometimes pronunced as Mandarin [j] and other cases as [y] in English.   Among above, f, v, and y do not exist in TMSS.  Since there is only [gv] and no [g], sometimes 'g' is used to express [gv].   No other nasal consonant exists in Hakka language.
Acknowledgement
     Hakka vocabularies in this dictionary were compiled by Ms. Zhae Jui-Ing of Dept. or Physics, Natl Cheng Kung Univeristy, Tainan.    Those belong to SuHsien Hakka words, which are spoken in her native town.   The author likes to express his deep appreciation for her cooperation.

   Simplest E-T-H Dictionary                    by EDUTECH Foundation   .   .    on March 20, 2002.