The prime interest of this dictionary is to show the difference between
Taiwanese sound and Hakka sound. A small English vocabulary
is here used to bring up the corresponging Taiwanese words and Hakka words,
given in the similar spelling system. "TMSS (Taiwanese
Modern Spelling System) with o" and "HMSS (Hakka Modern Spelling
System) with g for gv" are similar in pronunciation.
For people who are already familiar with TMSS, following explanation will
(1) In MLT articles, the letter "o" is used as phonetics [o] and [o].
In Taiwanese dictionaries and teaching materials, the phonetics [o]
is specially given in the TMSS spelling of "o" if it is to be pronounced
(2) In Hakka language, there is no pronounciation of [g]. Instead,
the nasal sound [gv] is always used. In our HMSS, the
consonant letter "g" is taken as equivalent to "gv".
(3) The vowel system an consonant system of Hakka is somewhat different
from those in Taiwanese.
a. Hakka vowels:
a, e, i, o, o, u, (blank), m, ng, ai, am, an, ang, au, em, en, eu,
ia, iam, iang, iau, ieh, ien, ieu, im, in, io, ioi, ion, iong, iu, iun,
iung, oa, oai, oan, oang, oen, oi, on, ong, ui, un, ung
(blank), em, en, eu, ieu, ieh, ioi, ion, iun, iung, oang, oen, oi, on,
and ung are not exisitng in TMSS. "ieh" in Hakka is pronunced
b. Hakka stops:
ak, ok, uk, iak, iok, iuk, at, et, it, iet, ot, oat, oet, ut, ap, ep, ip,
uk, iuk, et, ot, oet, ep, and up are not existing in TMSS.
c. Hakka consonants:
c, ch, f, gv,
h, k, kh, l, m, n, p, ph, s, t, th, v, y, z, zh "y" is
sometimes pronunced as Mandarin [j] and other cases as [y] in English.
Among above, f, v, and y do not exist in TMSS. Since there is only
[gv] and no [g], sometimes 'g' is used to express [gv].
No other nasal consonant exists in Hakka language.
vocabularies in this dictionary were compiled by Ms. Zhae Jui-Ing of Dept.
or Physics, Natl Cheng Kung Univeristy, Tainan. Those
belong to SuHsien Hakka words, which are spoken in her native town.
The author likes to express his deep appreciation for her cooperation.
Simplest E-T-H Dictionary
by EDUTECH Foundation .
. on March 20, 2002.